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星期四, 10月 20, 2016

麻州長、波士頓市長簽行政命令為測試無人車開路

 (Boston Orange 周菊子麻州綜合報導)麻州州長查理貝克(Charlie Baker)和波士頓市長馬丁華殊(Marty Walsh)今(10月20)日,"有約而同"的同時在早上11點對外發佈消息,簽署行政命令,為”自動駕駛車輛”的在麻州,波士頓市進行測試駕駛鋪路。
麻州長和波士頓市長的這一行動,顯然在回應近年發展,演變極為快速的機器學習(Machine learning)科技,為人類社會大轉變,邁出謹慎一步。
根據維基百科,人們早從1920年代就開始研究自動駕駛車輛,第一輛真正能夠自動駕駛的車輛,大概出現在1980年代。其中包括1984年,卡內基美隆大學的Navlab計畫,1987年的賓士(Mercedes-Benz)和德國慕尼黑聯邦國防大學進行的尤里卡普羅米修斯計畫。
從此,許多大公司,研究機構都開始研究無人駕駛汽車。最近這幾年,從谷歌(google)的無人駕駛汽車上路測試,麻省理工學院媒體實驗室進行智慧城市研究等等,到今年8月優步( Uber)"宣佈到匹茲堡(Pittsburg)測試無人駕駛汽車,甚至今(20)日鋼鐵人伊隆馬斯克(Elon Musk)的特斯拉(Telsa)公司宣佈,將開始製造能夠完全自動駕駛的電動車,都透露著人類社會交通模式,已從挑戰科技轉向挑戰法令。
無人駕駛汽車對人類社會是好是壞,危不危險,有沒隱私問題,出車禍時,到底誰得負責任,有了無人駕駛汽車之後,許多社會活動的運作,人們的生活行為將出現甚麼樣的變化等等問題,也因此一一跳到人們眼前。
就像位於麻州屋本市(Wobur)的Terrafugia公司,早就研發出可以飛的汽車,TF-X,就算價格可以在量產後壓低,仍然礙於法令,安全問題,還不能走入尋常百姓家。
麻州州長查理貝克今日簽署的行政命令第572號,成立自動駕駛汽車工作小組(The AV Working Group),制定規範準則,以供有意做自動駕駛汽車測試"的公司參考。
該小組成員將包括麻州交通署署長,公共安全署署長,住宅及經濟發展署署長,汽車監理處處長,高速公路行政長,以及由麻州參議會議長,眾議會議長,參議會少數黨領袖,眾議會少數黨領袖所指派的4人。
他們將召集汽車安全,汽車自動化方面的專家做顧問,和麻州議會合作,提出法案建議,以備公司們和麻州交通署(MassDOT),以及受影響市鎮簽協議,要在麻州測試自駕汽車時,有個了解備忘錄(Memorandum of Understanding)"可依循。
波士頓市長馬丁華殊今日也簽署了行政命令,指派波士頓是交通局長Gina N. Fiandaca擔任波士頓市內的監管自動汽車長,和波士頓交通局,市長的新市區機器辦公室(Mayor's Office of New Urban Mechanic)合作研擬在波士頓測試自動駕駛汽車準則。
麻州機器人協會行政主任Thomas Ryden曾經指出,不同的人談論自動駕駛汽車(autonomous car)時,可能會用到無人駕駛汽車(driverless car),自駕車輛(self-driving car),或機器人車( robotic car)等不同名詞,其實指的差不多是同一件事。
麻州長和波士頓市長顯然事前通過氣,都選用了自動駕駛汽車()這個詞。

Governor Baker Signs Executive Order to Promote the Testing and Deployment of Automated Vehicles

BOSTON –  Governor Charlie Baker today signed Executive Order 572, “To Promote the Testing and Deployment of Highly Automated Driving Technologies.” The Executive Order recognizes recent innovations in sensing and computing technology which have resulted in the rapid advancement of motor vehicle automation and creates a special working group on autonomous vehicles (AV) comprised of the Commonwealth’s Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Public Safety, Secretary of Housing and Economic Development, Registrar of Motor Vehicles, Highway Administrator, and four members designated by the Senate President, Speaker of the House, Senate Minority Leader, and House Minority Leader. 

The group, to be called the “The AV Working Group,” is to consult and convene with experts on motor vehicle safety and vehicle automation, collaborate with members of the Massachusetts Legislature on proposed legislation, and support “Memorandum of Understanding” agreements which companies will need to enter into with the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) and affected municipalities or state agencies when plans are proposed for conducting testing of self-driving vehicles in Massachusetts.

The Memorandum of Understanding is to include a process for companies to follow in order to obtain approval from MassDOT for testing.  The process will include submitting an application which demonstrates the vehicle to be tested has passed a Registry of Motor Vehicles inspection, can be operated without undue risk to public safety, and at all times will have a human being inside the vehicle while it is traveling.

“The Commonwealth is home to many world-class innovation companies and academic institutions intimately involved in autonomous vehicle technology, which makes Massachusetts uniquely qualified to responsibly host this emerging field to foster innovation and economic growth,” said Governor Baker. “The guidance the AV Working Group provides will be instrumental in ensuring companies can further develop autonomous vehicle technology in the Commonwealth and do so while maintaining the safety of our roadways.”

“Executive Order 572 embraces an innovative technology that has the potential to create jobs across Massachusetts,” said Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito. “We look forward to working with the developers, municipalities, the City of Boston, neighboring state and our federal partners to host and develop autonomous vehicle technology responsibly and effectively.”

Transportation Secretary and CEO Stephanie Pollack added that the AV Working Group’s goal will be to help advance innovation in autonomous vehicle technologies while ensuring that testing is conducted safely.  “Public safety will be our top priority,” Secretary Pollack said.  “As we collaborate with municipal and private sector partners, the Memorandum of Understanding will enable safe testing with people ready to take the wheel on pre-approved routes.”

“There is no doubt that autonomous vehicle technology will play a large part in the future of transportation,” said Secretary of Public Safety and Security Dan Bennett. “By taking proactive steps such as this Executive Order we will be more fully prepared to take advantage of these advances in technology in ways that are as safe and efficient as they can be.”

“Massachusetts is pioneering the new technologies that are enabling autonomous vehicles, including robotics, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, and internet-enabled sensors,” said Housing and Economic Development Secretary Jay Ash.“This executive order will allow Massachusetts to harness autonomous vehicle technology as a driver of economic development, by increasing investment in research and development, creating a predictable legal framework for autonomous vehicle developers, and positioning Massachusetts companies to fill key supply chain roles in this rapidly growing industry.”

"Autonomous vehicles have the incredible promise to deliver safer streets and a more equitable, reliable, and sustainable transportation system, but that will only occur with the right technology and right policies in place," said Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh.  "For that reason, Boston is ready to lead the charge on self-driving vehicles, supporting the development of the technology and policies that ensure this innovation will benefit all of our residents."

Mayor Martin J. Walsh signed and announced his own executive order today that establishes that the Boston Transportation Commissioner, Gina Fiandaca, will lead oversight of autonomous vehicles in the City of Boston, and the Boston Transportation Department (BTD), in coordination with the Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics (MONUM), will publish guidelines for the testing of autonomous vehicles. In addition, the BTD, with support from the MONUM, will publish policy recommendations with respect to autonomous vehicle technology, business models and supportive changes concerning the use of the public right of way.


MAYOR MARTIN J. WALSH SIGNS EXECUTIVE ORDER ON AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

Executive order establishes the Boston Transportation Commissioner as the leader in autonomous vehicle oversight
 BOSTON - Thursday, October 20, 2016 - Mayor Martin J. Walsh today signed an executive order on autonomous vehicles, "Autonomous Vehicles in the City of Boston," establishing that the Boston Transportation Commissioner, Gina N. Fiandaca, will lead oversight of autonomous vehicles in the City of Boston, and the Boston Transportation Department (BTD), with support from the Mayor's Office of New Urban Mechanics (MONUM), will develop guidelines for the testing of autonomous vehicles in the City of Boston. 

In addition, BTD, with support from MONUM, will publish policy recommendations with respect to autonomous vehicle technology, business models and street regulation and design. Those policy recommendations will be designed to advance Boston's equity and sustainability goals, putting a strong preference on models which are operated as shared and electric fleets that complement mass transit, walking and bicycling.

"Autonomous vehicles have the incredible promise to deliver safer streets and a more reliable, equitable and sustainable transportation system, but that will only occur with the right technology and right policies in place," said Mayor Walsh.  "For that reason, Boston is ready to lead the charge on self-driving vehicles, supporting the development of the technology and policies that ensure this innovation will benefit all of our residents."